The World Health Organization (WHO) Ignored

Ayres and Removed Canada From a Situation Report

Global risk of Zika virus depends critically on vector status of Aedes albopictus - Screenshot
Credit: Lauren M Gardner, Nan Chen, Sahotra Sarkar | Screenshot Image Taken to Prove WHO Removed Canada [Fair Use]

WHO Alerted

February 2016

February 4th, 2016, Dr. Constância F. J. Ayres published Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control[1] in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Dr. Ayres wrote letters to alert the scientific community and the World Health Organization (WHO):

 "... this issue deserves urgent attention. Vector control strategies must be directed at all potential vectors. To assume that the main vector is Aedes aegypti in areas in which other mosquito species coexist is naive, and could be catastrophic if other species are found to have important roles in Zika virus transmission."

March 13th, 2016, Canadian medical entomologist, Dr. Fiona Hunter left the Summit on Controlling Aedes aegypti in Maceio, Brazil with this note to self:

"There was 'no mosquito infection data to support ZIKV [Zika virus] transmission by Aedes aegypti in Brazil."

On March 17th, 2016, Lauren M. Gardner, Nan Chen, and Sahortra Sarkar published Global risk of Zika virus depends critically on vector status of Aedes albopictus[2] (also in The Lancet Infectious Diseases). They concluded:

"These results underscore Ayres point that the vector competence of the various potential mosquito species should be a matter of immediate quantitative assessment."

I noticed that Canada was mentioned (underlined in red in my intro photo) but when I checked out WHO's February 19th Situation Report,[5] there was zero mention of Canada. 

A July 27th, 2016 post by Elton Alisson in Agência FAPESP confirmed:

"The results of the studies performed by Lopes [Dr. Ayres] and her research group at Fiocruz were presented to the WHO, which asked the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to have other mosquito species, especially Culex quinquefasciatus, investigated in regions of the world where cases of infection by Zika virus have been recorded."[3]

Remember, this was all going on while 240 researchers and public health experts were calling on the WHO and IOC to postpone or move the Olympic Games "in the name of public health".[4]

2007 Yap Island Proof

When about 70 percent of Yap Island’s population of 7,300 was infected with the Zika virus in 2007, there was no evidence of Aedes aegypti as a culprit. Dr. Ayres confirmed:

"Aedes aegypti is very rare on most of the islands and is completely absent from the islands where the vast majority of cases of Zika occurred."

So, Dr. Ayres contacted researchers in the region to identify which mosquito species was most abundant there. Their answer was Culex quinquefasciatus, which had not been investigated as a Zika vector.[3]

Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO

And Brazilian President Rousseff Discussed Actions to Combat Zika Virus and the Aedes aegypti Mosquito

Dilma discute com Margaret Chan o combate ao vírus Zika no Brasil [Dilma discusses with Margaret Chan fighting Zika virus in Brazil]
Credit: Agência Brasil Fotografias on flickr (CC-by-2.0) Taken February 23rd, 2016

What the WHO is Telling the World

According to WHO's online page Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers[6] (updated September 19th, 2016):

Zika virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito ... studies have shown that Culex species were experimentally unable to transmit the Zika virus, and it is unlikely that they play a role in the current outbreak of Zika.

But then further along, under 'Mosquito surveillance (monitoring)' it states:

All studies conducted to-date in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas support the conclusion that Aedes aegypti is the main vector ... However, recent research in Brazil shows that the Culex mosquito may also transmit Zika. 

And almost as if to indemnify themselves, the WHO states:

WHO's vector control recommendations targeting the Aedes species are also very efficient against other mosquito vectors, including the Culex.

Unlike Aedes, Culex Quinquefasciatus Could

Keep the Zika Virus in Circulation During the Winter

This Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito has landed on a human finger.
Credit: CDC / Jim Gathany (2003) This work is in the public domain as it was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person’s official duties under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code.

Culex Require Different Eradication Strategies

In fact, both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found to be poor vectors of the Zika virus.

According to the Illinois Department of Public Health[7] and the study Seasonal Abundance of Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens Complex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in California: 

Culex Mosquitoes

  • Typically bite at dusk and after dark
  • Lay "rafts" of eggs on polluted water in a variety of natural and man-made containers
  • Over-winter in protected places like sewers, subway tunnels, crawlspaces, and basements
  • Peak populations occur late in the season (e.g. September)[8]

Aedes Mosquitoes

  • Often the first mosquito noticed in spring, and after heavy rainfall
  • Adults emerging together from flooded areas are often so numerous that natural controls, such as predators and parasites, are overwhelmed
  • May bite more people than any other species
  • Will bite any time of day if disturbed while resting in shaded, heavily vegetated areas
  • Typically die in autumn with the first hard frost

Given the differences between these species, it's easy to see how public health departments around the world need to be aware that Culex could also be a vector.

Related: Safe Mosquito Eradication That Works: Using Coffee, Bti, Rubbing Alcohol, and a Cat 

Dengue, Zika, and What the WHO Knows

The WHO documented the following on their timeline[9] of the virus:

Jan 27th, 2016:

French Polynesia reports retrospective data on its Zika outbreak, which coincided with a dengue outbreak. During the outbreak, 42 cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome were diagnosed- a 20-fold increase over previous years.
 
All 42 cases tested positive for Zika and dengue. The investigation concluded that successive dengue and Zika virus infections might be a predisposing factor for developing Guillain–Barré syndrome.
 

But the CDC Created a Flawed Zika Test

It Misses 40 Percent of Infections and Dengue Strains

Since April 2016, Dr. Robert S. Lanciotti, a highly respected chief of the Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory within the Arbovirus Diseases Branch at CDC, has been voicing his concerns about a new Zika test the CDC was promoting.

In fact, Dr. Lanciotti was punished (demoted) by the CDC and had to file a whistleblower retaliation claim. Some of his signed statements for the U.S. Office of Special Counsel (OSC)[10] included:

"At a minimum, the State Public Health Labs that were already approved for using the Singleplex should have been encouraged to continue with this format ..."

"With respect to detecting the four dengue viruses, the data showed a greater than 100-fold reduced sensitivity of the Trioplex when compared to both the Singleplex and the commercial ABI test."

Overall Conclusion

Trioplex would in the "real world" miss cases of Zika virus and all four dengue viruses.

I'm not surprised that we haven't heard about Zika infections that were acquired at the Olympics.

Related: Zika Virus: Our Tainted Blood Supply

 

Rapid Tests Used in the Diagnosis of Dengue

 Testes rápidos usados no diagnóstico da dengue [Rapid tests used in the diagnosis of dengue]
Credit: Agência Brasília on flickr (CC-by-2.0) Photo: Dênio Simões / Agência (CC-by-2.0)

What WHO Knows About Dengue Outbreaks

When I viewed the WHO's webpage Emergencies preparedness, response: Dengue fever,[11] immediately I noticed the first few entries:

10 March 2016: Dengue Fever – Uruguay

25 February 2016: Dengue Fever – Uruguay

12 November 2015: Dengue Fever – Egypt

Those reminded me of the predicted global distribution for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (published  June 30th, 2015) and the global range of Culex p. pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus (which I plotted out October 13th, 2016). Egypt and Uruguay have much more Culex p. pipiens than Aedes mosquitoes.

 

Global Range of Ae. Aegypti and Ae. Albopictus

N.B: Canada, Mid-Western U.S., Egypt, Chile, Uruguay

Global Distribution of Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus (June 2015)
Credit: By Kraemer M, Sinka M, Duda K, Mylne A, Shearer F, Barker C, Moore C, Carvalho R, Coelho G, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Elyazar I, Teng H, Brady O, Messina J, Pigott D, Scott T, Smith D, Wint G, Golding N, Hay S [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

Egypt and Uruguay: Not Much Aedes Aegypti

Global Range of Two Culex Mosquito Species Hand-Drawn Over Predicted Range of Aedes Aegypti
Credit: Created October 13th, 2016 by Rose Webster (aka RoseWrites) | Kindly ask me about reuse of this image.

CDC's Zika Virus Distribution Map January 2016

Blood Tests Confirmed Serosurvey Data (N.B. Africa)

CDC Map of Zika Virus Distribution as of 15 January 2016
Credit: By United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

All Countries: Active Zika Virus Transmission

The CDC Omitted Canada, Chile, Uruguay, Egypt, and Inserted a Map Over Numerous Countries in Africa

US CDC map of all countries with active Zika virus transmission in September 2016
Credit: By US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

What About Chile? Is There Any Data?

When I accessed the Health Map of the Zika Outbreak,[12] I was shocked to discover the following entries:

March 03, 2014

Countries with confirmed local transmission: Chile

In fact from March 25th, 2015 until October 16th, 2015, there were 20 entries that stated: "Countries with confirmed local transmission: Chile, Brazil".
 
On October 16th, 2015 Health Map wrote: "Countries with confirmed local transmission: Chile, Brazil, Colombia".
 
Important to note though, Easter Island is part of Chile.
 
When I looked up whether Chile (the mainland) had cases of Zika, the earliest piece of information I could find was this Toronto Star post by Jennifer Yang dated February 2014:[13]
 
"Public health authorities in Chile confirm the first case of locally acquired Zika on Easter Island, where an outbreak is underway 3,500 kilometres from the mainland."
 
It also stated (as underlined in my intro photo):
"Jan. 24, 2016: In a statement, PAHO announces it anticipates Zika will spread to every country in North and South America except Canada and mainland Chile."
 
Then I found a Medscape post written by Lara C. Pullen, PhD which stated:
 
"In 2014, Zika virus was documented in Chile — the first incidence of the infection in Latin America."[14]
 
And according to Wikipedia, mainland Chile (with the capital city of Santiago) is part of Latin America: "Latin America consists of twenty sovereign states and several territories and dependencies which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean."[15]
 
I could find no mention of Easter Island being part of Latin America.
 
A third source, dated December 13th, 2015 stated:
 
"The Uruguay Ministry of Public Health reports that the Zika virus has arrived in many parts of South America, entering the mainland via Chile from Easter Island. Not known to be in Uruguay yet, but in neighboring countries."[16]

3,500 km From Easter Isle is Chile's Shore

Easter Island is How Far From Chile
Credit: Screenshot of Google Search: "Easter Island is How Far From Chile" [Fair Use]

Why Would the CDC and WHO Want to Omit

Canada, Mid-Western U.S., Egypt, Chile, and Uruguay?

Remember that Utah case,[17] wherein the elderly gent died and passed the Zika virus (somehow) to his caretaker son? 

The son had not traveled nor had sex with anyone who had been to a Zika-endemic area. And Utah does not have Aedes aegypti nor Aedes albopictus.

I found it strange that the CDC's July 19th, 2016 Press Briefing contained no mention of whether or not the elderly gent had antibodies to dengue in his blood.[18] Especially since dengue and Zika cross react; known as ADE (antibody-dependent enhancement).

And it was widely publicized that the deceased gentleman had 'uniquely high amounts' of the Zika virus. National Geographic also mentioned "the virus has been found in blood, semen, urine, saliva, cervical mucus, breast milk, and the fluid inside the eyeball".[17]

Related: Zika Shrivels Testes, Drops Testosterone, and May Cause Infertility

And a study in The New England Journal of Medicine[23] stated: 

"Testing was negative for dengue virus (DENV) on polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay." And at first, all I heard was that dengue did not play any role.
 
Further along though, it stated:
 
"Serologic analysis for DENV was consistent with remote infection, with a highly elevated IgG level and an equivocal IgM level."
 
It would appear that this gent did indeed have a dengue infection in the past; a "remote" infection.

Dengue is endemic in Utah, which has plenty of Culex pipiens. And it appears that Chile also has endemic cases of dengue (but no Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus either). Chile has Culex mosquitoes.

Dengue Fever Outbreak on World Map (2012)

Dengue Fever Outbreak on World Map - 2012/10
Credit: Chatham Public Health [Fair Use]

April 2016: WHO Approved First Dengue Vaccine

Unfortunately, Scott B. Halstead, MD, a leader in dengue research, saw a huge problem with the 3-year results of the vaccine CYD-TDV (known as Dengvaxia, made by Sanofi Pasteur).

He said:

"It's clear as the nose on my face: Vaccine recipients less than 5 years old had five to seven times more rates of hospitalizations for severe dengue virus than placebo controls."[19]

The vaccine probably causes ADE (antibody-dependent enhancement). And I suspect that any antibodies to dengue (whether by mosquito or vaccine) could cause ADE. 

Scott Michael, PhD, also confirmed there is plenty of literature that shows cross-enhancements of disease within the flavivirus family.[20]

"Given the recent observation that antibodies to dengue virus enhance Zika virus infection, one must also wonder if immunization with CYD [Dengvaxia] can lead to worse Zika virus disease. It's clear that CYD is not the dengue vaccine that the world needs." ~ Vincent Racaniello, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology at Columbia University[19]

After I read more about Dengvaxia, it became obvious to me why the WHO and CDC might want to downplay any connection to dengue antibodies – however acquired – and Culex mosquitoes being vectors of the Zika virus.

On Sanofi Pasteur's Media webpage it states:

"The safety, efficacy and public health value of the dengue vaccine has been independently endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in position paper on Dengvaxia published on 29th July 2016, which is consistent with the earlier positive recommendation on the dengue vaccine issued by the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization last April."[21]

Dengvaxia: In Development For Over 20 Years

At a Cost of $1.5 Billion Euros; $1.65 Billion USD[22]

Can anyone say conflict of interest?

And since there was no mosquito infection data to support Zika virus transmission by Aedes aegypti in Brazil, this could indicate that Culex mosquitoes (that transmit Zika) cause a far more dangerous or deadly Zika virus infection.

Those might be key reasons why the WHO and CDC do not want dengue strains identified. Hence why the Trioplex assay was promoted.

Our public health authorities and mainstream media appear to be keeping Zika-endemic areas – that have no Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito populations – practically concealed.

It was disturbing that a gent in Hawaii was denied medical attention by two doctors, a hospital ER, and the Hawaii Department of Health. All because he had not traveled (it was impossible for him to have picked the virus up from some other place).

Culex quinquefasciatus is found on all islands and is the most common night-biting mosquito in Hawaii. However, Aedes aegypti is found only on the Big Island and Molokai.[31]

Partial List of CDC's Case Counts in the U.S.

Tourism-Dependent States Probably Do Not Want to See Numbers Tallied in the Right-Hand Column

Laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state or territory — United States, 2015–2016 (as of October 26, 2016)
Credit: CDC Case Counts in the U.S. [Partial List] As of October 26, 2016 (5 am EST)

I'd wager a bet that Hawaii's Zika case counts are much higher (and the right-hand column probably isn't zero).

When I Overlap Dengue, Culex, and Zika

Mexico and India Seem Especially Vulnerable

But in the U.S. (and perhaps Canada or elsewhere) it will be hard to determine which of the four strains of dengue are found in those who might present with incapacitating Zika infections.

All thanks to the CDC's inaccurate Trioplex assay and a concerted effort by our public health authorities (including educational institutes and the media) to remain stuck in an assumption that Culex mosquitoes could not be a vector of the Zika virus.

Even in the face of undeniable proof to the contrary.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Author's note: All of my citations have a clickable link to their source. The list is found in the bibliography at the end of this page.