The environment is man's immediate surrounding which he manipulates for his existence. The environment comprises air, land, water, natural resources, flora and fauna, and human beings. Wrongful manipulations introduce hazards that make the environment unsafe. Interference with the pure components of the environment alters the ecology and imbalance is created in the ecosystem.
Concern for the environment has been from as early as the 13th century when reacting to the burning of coal in London because it was considered harmful to health; the king in 1273 prohibited the burning of coal in London. There is today this concern for the environment over the way in which human activity can pollute air or water. There are further concerns because the scale and nature of human activity may now be threatening the earth as a planet. For these reasons protection of the environment has assumed greater dimensions.
Environmental Management- Environmental management , the act of giving direction and control for the use of the environment, or the process of utilizing items of environmental nature so that man activities do not have negative impact on the environment, is one measures for saving the environment from being impacted adversely.
Environmental Protection- The second measure is environmental protection for the protection and conservation of existing resources. it ensures that air quality, water/groundwater quality, soil quality, vegetation, wild life, fisheries are conserved. it also controls noise, heat, light, vibration, and socio-economic community impact.
Environmental Resources- Environmental resources that could be impacted upon include: Air, Animal, Natural Resources, Water, Plants, Soil, Humans
Environmental Aspects- Modern world's demand has resulted in the generation of cast quantities of by-products as waste that now poses a threat to the environment. Activities products or services, which have the potential to impact adversely on the environment include: waste, Gaseous emission into the air, Discharges to soil, flood, Discharges into water, Nuisance (noise, odor, heat). Use of energy, erosion.
Specific industrial activities that interface with the environment and could impact on it include:
Dredging, site clearing, Excavation, Pipe laying, Gas laying, Gas flaring, Pigging operation, Drilling operation, Flow-station operation
Hazardous pollutants form domestic, commercial and industrial sources commonly pollute water. Such pollutants include oil spills, water and liquid discharges from industrial plants, sewage and discharges from sewage treatment works, and acid rain. They contaminate surface and groundwater often used for drinking, and which support aquatic life.
Effect of Water Pollution
* Contamination of surface/underground water
* Destruction of aquatic life
* Silting of water bodies
Land is contaminated by chemicals allowed to drain into the ground, or were disposed of by indiscriminate burying. Other sources of contamination are acid rain, agrochemicals, refuse, and oil spillage
Effect of Land Pollution
* It introduces health hazards
* Stunted growth in plants
* reduce soil fertility
* Reduce land use
* Public nuisance.
Noise - Complaints arise when the overall level of noise significantly exceeds the background level, or when a persistent frequency is emitted. This can results from running machines or when machines bearing run dry, or from the exhaust outlet of a car or air conditioning system